Soil for growing sea buckthorn
The healing properties of sea buckthorn have long been known. Our ancestors collected orange berries in wild thickets growing on the banks of rivers, islands and in floodplains. Over time, the plant began to be grown in personal plots, invented and developed varieties that give higher yields and differ in taste. Horticultural culture requires care and is more demanding on the composition of the soil than wild-growing, therefore, every gardener, before planting a seedling in his area, must check its acidity and mechanical composition.
Where sea buckthorn grows in nature
Central Asia is considered the birthplace of sea buckthorn, but over the millennia, it has been able to spread far beyond its borders. Now the plant is distributed in the south of Russia, in Ukraine, Siberia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Moldova, the Baltic states, Belarus, Denmark. The plant loves not heavy, moist soil; its favorite place is the banks of reservoirs. Sea buckthorn, growing in household plots, was bred by selection, but like wild, loves moisture.
Did you know? Sea buckthorn can tolerate 40-degree frosts and prolonged droughts.
Sea buckthorn loves light, so it should be planted in open areas, away from garden trees and shrubs. Seabuckthorn seedlings shaded by weeds will die in the first year of life. To prevent this, it is necessary to remove weeds growing around the crop, which create a shadow and adversely affect the growth of young animals.
The root system of the plant does not penetrate deep into the soil, but is fixed in its upper layer.
Male or female individuals grow on one tree. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of wind. The difference between male and female species of plant is in fruitful buds. In the male culture, they are larger and are covered with scales.
Despite the fact that in nature, sea buckthorn grows quite quickly, forming thickets, it is still demanding on the chemical composition of the soil and its physical structure, therefore, in order to grow a plant on a personal plot, the earth is preliminarily prepared.
The chemical composition of the soil means the elemental composition of its mineral part, as well as the content of humus, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and chemically bound water. The earth contains almost all chemical elements. But most of them are present in very small quantities, so in practice you have to deal with only 15 elements. These include organogens: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen; non-metals: sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, chlorine; Metals: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron and manganese.
Sea buckthorn loves light neutral soils, which on the acidity scale of solutions occupy a pH range from 6 to 7. It is easy to determine the chemical composition of the soil.
There are two ways to do this:
- Pour vinegar over a lump of earth. If vinegar hisses, then the medium is alkaline.
- The acidity of the soil can be found with litmus paper. Dig a hole in the bayonet of a shovel, cut a thin layer of earth along the entire depth, moisten it with rain or distilled water. Compress the earth with litmus in your hand and see how it changes color. If it turns blue, the soil is neutral.
Acidity is also determined by weeds growing on the site. If the odorless chamomile grows, the gardener is calf, creeping wheatgrass, field bindweed, then the earth in this place is neutral in acidity.
On one site, the land may not be of the same type. The acidic acid is neutralized by liming, using hydrated lime, cement dust, ground limestone, lake lime, ground chalk, shale and wood ash.
Important! Slaked lime can not be brought along with manure. It contains caustic potassium compounds that absorb nitrogen released in the form of ammonia.
In nature, there are how many types of soil on which the degree of its fertility depends, that is, suitability for any crops.
According to the physical structure, it is divided into the following types:
- light loamy;
- medium loamy;
- heavy loamy;
- sandy loam.
Depending on the mechanical composition, they are divided into light, medium and heavy. Sandy and sandy soils belong to the lungs. Light loamy and medium loamy soils belong to moderate soils. Severe are loamy, clayey and humus.
Sea buckthorn loves light sandy and sandy loamy soil, the acidity of which is more than 6.5. To find out the composition of the soil, you need to take a handful of earth, moisten it with water and bring it to a test state. Then roll it into a cord and roll it into a ring. You won’t be able to make a cord from sandy soil, if you get only the makings of the cord, this means that you have sandy loam on the site.
Did you know? In China, 90% of all sea buckthorn grows in the world. From 1950 to 1985 plantations of 200 thousand ha were planted in this country to preserve soil and water.
Video: how to determine the soil texture
How to water and fertilize sea buckthorn
In order for the plant to take root in the infield and give good yields, it needs proper care. Despite the fact that sea buckthorn tolerates drought, it must be watered. And so that there were a lot of berries, they were juicy and large, they fertilize the plant.
Particular attention should be paid to buckthorn seedlings. Spring and autumn planting of young animals require abundant watering. In the future, soil moisture should be maintained, especially if young trees are planted in the spring, because even the strongest specimens will not be able to survive its long drying out. To do this, pour 40 liters of water under the seedlings in the heat, and pour up to 80 liters at least once per week under adult trees at 1 m².
Do not water the plant too often, because it is afraid of stagnation and may die. After irrigation, the soil in the trunk circles is loosened so that moisture is retained longer and air has access to the roots.
What to feed
An important role in the growth of sea buckthorn is played by top dressing the soil, necessary to improve its nutritional composition. To do this, use fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium (superphosphate, ammophos, diammophos, potassium salt, urea, potassium sulfate). Fertilizers are applied in a ratio of 1: 2, for 1 m² 2 tbsp. l the drug. After the root system of the plant has developed, ammonium nitrate is scattered around the trunk. On 1 m² of soil, 20 g of powder is poured and dripped.
Video: how to care for sea buckthorn
The plant that bears fruit, after flowering, is treated with a solution of leaves. Prepare a solution as follows: 1 tbsp. liquid potassium humate or "Effekton" is diluted in 10 liters of water. When the ovaries grow, the plant is fed with a solution consisting of double superphosphate in granules and a Universal-micro mixture (2 tbsp.l.), potassium sulfate (1 tbsp. l.) and water (10 l).
In the fall, when digging, a mixture consisting of 30 g of superphosphate, 100 g of wood ash, 25 g of potassium salt is scattered on each square meter. Instead of superphosphate, 50 g of phosphorous flour is added to acidic soil.
Important! If the plant is well fertilized during planting, then it can not be fed for three years.
Growing sea buckthorn on the site is not a difficult process, if you follow all the rules of planting, watering and top dressing, maintaining the proper soil composition. Special care requires a young, only planted plant, but an adult tree takes much less time and effort, but it gives good yields of berries that are invaluable in their vitamin composition.