Description of sea-buckthorn Gnome, its planting and care
Sea buckthorn is a plant from the Sucker family, widely known in Russia. It is very popular among gardeners, due to the rich mineral and vitamin composition of ripe berries (vitamins A, B, C, E, folic acid, iron, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, boron). The plant is also used on an industrial scale in the manufacture of vitamin complexes, pharmacy oils, ointments, creams. There are many varieties of sea buckthorn (openwork, Augustine, Elizabeth, Alei). Sea buckthorn Gnome is one of the most popular varieties. This species is valued not only for healing and nutritional properties. They also use it in decorative quality - as a decoration of a site.
Sea buckthorn trees are male and female. Flowers and fruits are found exclusively on female plants. In male plants, tufts of stamens with pollen form. Pollen carried by the wind fertilizes the inflorescences of female representatives of sea buckthorn. The flowers of sea buckthorn trees do not have a smell, so insects are indifferent to them. Gardeners often pollinate by hand, picking a branch with male stamens and passing it along female flowers. Also, male plants try to plant from the side where the wind usually blows in a given area, so that pollination occurs automatically.Elevated part: 1 - root neck; 2 - trunk; 3 - a branch of the first branching order; 4 - a branch of the second branching order; 5 - a third-order branch of a branch (fruit-bearing branch); 6 - a branch of the fourth branching order (growth of the current year). Buckthorn of the variety Gnome, as described, is a male representative of this family. A planted plant on personal plots for pollination of female sea buckthorn trees. This greatly increases the amount of yield. For 3-5 female plants, one Gnome tree is enough. Gnome - an ornamental plant, has a particularly spectacular appearance during the formation of buds (second half of April), which are covered with many thin scales and resemble fir cones. This species is not picky, does not require careful maintenance, calmly reacts to soil scarcity, and is frost-resistant (up to –45 ° С). However, it is difficult to tolerate temperature fluctuations if they occur during the formation of stamens.
Did you know? Ripening, the fruits of sea buckthorn acquire the aroma of pineapple, for this tree is called the Siberian pineapple.
Under favorable conditions, Dwarf sea buckthorn can reach 2.5 m in height. The tree has a small crown, which rarely allows pruning. The young shoots of the Gnome have a smooth bright green bark. With growth, they become coarser and lignified. Branches begin to bend with age and turn brown. The bark of adult branches is ribbed. The leaves are large, have a bright green color and are covered with tiny yellow hairs. The rhizome is long, the lateral roots are located horizontally close to the surface of the earth (0.5 m).
Origin of the variety
A variety of sea buckthorn Gnome appeared on the territory of the Siberian Research Institute of Horticulture. M.A. Lisavenko as a result of crossing varieties Vitamin and Chulyshmanskaya. The official date for the appearance of the variety is considered to be 1997. It is considered a pollinator variety with high pollen productivity.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting sea buckthorn in early spring. Do this before the start of the growing season, when the buds are not yet swollen. Saplings carry autumn rooting extremely hard and often do not have time to take root before the onset of winter. Sea buckthorn trees should be planted in the area where the sun's rays fall. At the same time, to obtain a rich harvest, it is worth planting one male plant for 3-5 female plants.
Important! If the roots of the young tree are too dry, they are placed for a day in a bucket of well-maintained water to restore their original elasticity. Otherwise, the seedling will not be able to take root on open ground.
Sea buckthorn grows well on loose fertile soil rich in organic fertilizers. Does not like the plant clay and acidic soil. The optimum pH is 7.0. If the soil is very acidic, then before planting sea buckthorn, limestone is added to it (300-400 g per 1 m² once every 10 years). For rooting, it is best to take seedlings of one or two years old. Before planting their root system, it is recommended to lower them into a clay mash for better survival in a new environment.For the spring planting of sea buckthorn, the site must be prepared in the fall. For each square meter of soil, 25 g of potassium sulfate, 210 g of superphosphate, 3-4 buckets of humus are scattered, and all this is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet. At the beginning of March, planting holes with a size of 65 × 65 × 65 cm are arranged. The distance between the plants to be planted should be 2 m. A support 1 meter high is dug in the center of each well and an elevation from the ground is placed nearby, on which the seedling is placed.
The root system of a young plant is neatly distributed in the planting recess. After this, the pit is covered with a mixture of earth, peat, coarse sand and humus in equal shares. The root neck of the tree is buried 3 cm underground. The seedling must be attached to the support. Gently compact the soil and pour 3 buckets of water into the trunk circle. After absorbing water, the soil around the tree should be mulched with humus or earth. The first 30 days after planting, the plant is watered daily with 1 bucket of water (except for rainy days).
Sea buckthorn care
Caring for sea buckthorn is quite simple.
Did you know? 90% of all sea buckthorn trees on the planet grow in China.
However, it is worth considering certain of its features, in accordance with which agricultural technology is carried out:
- In spring (the second half of March), pruning is performed for sanitary purposes, in which sick, dry, damaged, frozen shoots are removed.
- Stam and main branches are treated with slaked lime solution. Cuts and damage are lubricated with a 2% solution of copper sulfate.
- In April, soil is weeded around the trunks and between the rows.
- With the onset of heat (May), watering of the plant begins.
- In calm weather during flowering, it is necessary to apply artificial pollination (cut off the branch of the flowering Gnome and shake it over female flowers).
- In summer, it is especially necessary to control the soil moisture (should be moist at a depth of 55 cm).
- It is necessary to remove weeds in the near-trunk zone.
- If pests are found, the plant is treated every 7 days with a solution of ash (300 ml per bucket of settled water).
- In the form of preventive measures against diseases and pests, the tree is sprayed with a 2% solution of Bordeaux fluid at the beginning and at the end of the season.
- The tree must be inspected regularly for timely detection of ailments.
- During the fruit ripening period (August - September), the branches become heavy, and they must be propped up.
- After the berries are harvested, in dry weather, sea buckthorn is abundantly watered.
- In mid-autumn (October), the soil is fertilized with humus and superphosphate.
Video: features and care for sea buckthorn
Water the Dwarf as needed. It is necessary to try so that moisture permeates the entire depth of the soil where the root system of the plant lies. For these purposes, a young seedling needs 20-30 liters of water. Mature trees need 6–8 buckets. With the approach of autumn, watering plants is increased by 1.5 times. In mid-October, water-charging irrigation is carried out. Saturation with moisture before the onset of frost helps to increase the winter hardiness of the culture.
Young seedlings are watered daily. Adult sea buckthorn tolerates drought. However, in hot weather, it should be watered abundantly.The soil should be moistened not less than 55 cm in depth. In the warm season, four waterings of adult trees are usually carried out (6 buckets each): before blooming and after flowering, during the period when the berries are formed, in late September - October before frosts.
The soil must be loosened every time the next day after irrigation or precipitation. It is worth doing when all the moisture is absorbed into the ground. Given the shallow occurrence of lateral roots, loosen the soil no deeper than 7 cm around the trunk and 10 cm between rows. If a naked root is found, it should immediately be mulched with a sand-peat mixture (1: 1).The soil should always remain loose and saturated with oxygen. In order to avoid especially frequent loosening, and also not to damage the rhizome of the plant when digging, the trunk circle should be mulched with humus or compost (tops of potatoes, leaves of apple or birch are suitable for this).
Important! Colonies of beneficial bacteria live on the buckthorn rhizome. During loosening, they gain access to air from which nitrogen is extracted. In the future, these bacteria enrich the soil around the tree with nitrogen compounds that it needs for life.
There are a lot of ways to propagate sea buckthorn: by seeds, dividing the bush, germinating cuttings, grafting, layering and planting the shoots. A gnome is a male plant and has no fruits, therefore reproduction by seeds is impossible.
Cuttings. You can take both green cuttings and those that are already lignified. Lumber cuttings are stored in November - December, as well as in March - the first half of April. For these purposes, shoots of two years old with a stem thickness of at least 6 mm are taken. They are cut into pieces of 14-22 cm. Cuttings harvested from the fall must be tied up with twine and wrapped in polyethylene, then placed in a cold place (under snow, in a hole under dry foliage or just in a cellar).Before spring rooting, the cuttings should be soaked for three days in water, where a root stimulant is added (changed every 12 hours). On the fourth day, cuttings are dug into the ground at an angle of 45 °, leaving two or three buds on the surface. By the onset of the autumn period, cuttings grow to 55 cm. The plant matures in the third year after rooting. For green cuttings, a sterile soil mixture with sand and a root growth stimulator is required, as well as constant air humidification. Female cuttings have a higher survival rate than male ones.
Planting by using layering. The layering method is applicable provided that the branches of the plant bend well. In the spring (March - April), one should determine the branch with the maximum growth, bend it and place it in a small depression in the soil, sprinkle with earth on top.
In order for the layering to remain in place, you can fix it with a metal bracket. Layers need to be watered, fertilized, weed the soil and eliminate weeds. You can only separate it from the parent plant next spring. After that, layers are dug up with rhizome and rooted in the designated area.Replanting. To do this, choose sprouts formed at a distance of 1.5 m from the parent sea buckthorn (no closer). These layers have a rhizome. The process is spudded, irrigated, fertilized during the entire warm season. In the spring, after wintering, before the movement of juices begins, it is separated and rooted in a place of constant growth.Reproduction by dividing the bush. It is necessary to dig out the entire bush, cut off adult branches from it and divide it into parts. For these purposes, use a pruner or sharp knife. Instruments must be sterile. Each part must have rhizome and shoots. Slices should be treated with charcoal. Dividends are planted like ordinary seedlings, also produce agricultural machinery.Vaccination. With the help of vaccination, you can get a male specimen on a female sea buckthorn tree / shrub or create a new variety on a stock with good immunity. Vaccination is done in April - May. A sprout of two years old is taken as a basis (stock). It must be cut off above the root neck at a distance of 2 cm. On the rootstock, leave one strong shoot 10 cm long, cut off all the others, and cut the slices with powdered charcoal.
Important Cuttings take root much better to the stem obtained by artificial means than during grafting to the root neck of the plant.
Escape should be grown all season. At the same time, it is necessary to pinch it several times so that the growth goes into the thickness, and not up. The stock growth is eliminated. By the next season should get a straight clean trunk. For the third season in spring, the stock will be approximately 55 cm long and 6–8 mm in diameter. At this time, it is possible to instill the necessary grade of cuttings into it. Vaccination is done at a height of 11 cm from the root neck. Planting and caring for sea buckthorn is a simple matter that does not require special skills and experience.The culture has excellent survival rates, has high adaptive abilities, easily tolerates frosts and is not attacked by harmful insects, fungi and bacteria. A tree of the Gnome variety should be planted to increase the yield of female sea buckthorn. In addition, on the site it is often used as a hedge and as a component of compositions in landscape design. The variety does not require special care and will delight you and your loved ones with its beauty for many years.