Features of fruiting sea buckthorn
Since ancient times, sea buckthorn has been valued for its healing and beneficial properties, and therefore this plant can be found to this day in almost every household plot. However, experienced gardeners know that such a shrub requires not only certain growing conditions - special rules must be followed for fruiting and long life of sea buckthorn. What exactly needs to be done so that sea buckthorn annually pleased with a rich harvest is discussed in this article.
The conditions for the growth of sea buckthorn
In order for the sea buckthorn to take root well and grow and develop correctly, several factors should be taken into account when planting:
- Illumination - when choosing a place for landing, you need to know that sea buckthorn is a light-loving plant and practically does not tolerate shading. Also, it is characterized by rapid growth jumps in the first year of life and a further slowdown, so the bushes planted next to it quickly overtake the sea buckthorn in growth and cover it from sunlight. The productivity of shrubs planted on small elevations is much higher than in the lowlands.
- Humidity - Sea buckthorn needs good moisture, but does not tolerate waterlogging, so when planting, you should avoid places with close to the groundwater, which will cause a slowdown in the development of the plant and its rapid death. The best choice will be the slopes of small elevations, where sea buckthorn will be provided with drainage and water stagnation will not be observed. Here you should also know that lack of moisture is equally fatal for shrubs - insufficient water can provoke the discharge of foliage and ovaries.
- The soil - Sea buckthorn grows well in fertile loamy or sandy loamy soils. With an insufficient amount of minerals, planting is permissible only after improving the soil by applying fertilizers. At the same time, according to the needs of the plant, phosphorus is the most important element. But sea buckthorn practically does not need nitrogen, and it is completely indifferent to potassium.
Will bear fruit without pollination
Referring to dioecious plants, sea-buckthorn is divided into male and female specimens, with same-sex motley (female) and stamen (male) flowers. Their presence in one area ensures the pollination of bushes with the help of wind and, therefore, their fruiting. At the same time, the placement should be fairly close (no more than 6–10 m from each other).
Did you know? Due to the expansion of the root system, sea buckthorn is often planted to prevent landslides and strengthen sandy soils.
Usually one “boy” is able to pollinate several female buckthorn bushes at the same time. But, given the possibility of his death or non-survival, it is recommended to plant several male specimens at once on one site.
Male grade selection
As mentioned above, pollination is impossible without pestle buckthorn.
In order to choose the right sample for planting, you should know the main differences between male and female copies of sea buckthorn:
- type of kidney - the kidneys of male sea buckthorn are much larger, have a scaly structure that resembles pine nuts;
- foliage - the male plant is characterized by flat-turned leaves of a grayish color (the female plant has a concave shape, and the color is standard green);
- plaque - foliage of male sea buckthorn is covered with a gray layer.
In order to avoid mistakes during planting, it is recommended to purchase male specimens in nurseries. However, such seedlings can be grown independently by sowing seeds. To do this, carefully study seed - female specimens will grow from gray seeds with a touch, and male specimens from naked black ones will grow.
Important! Universal pollination can be achieved by instilling a branch of the male specimen of sea buckthorn to the female. This can be done in early spring (before the buds open).
In this case, the necessary seeds can be selected already during the harvest: drupe, which has an oblong shape, carries female seeds, and round - male. You must also know that, despite a large selection of different varieties, the appearance of male specimens will not affect the ability of pollination.
When it begins to bear fruit after planting
The process of fruiting in sea buckthorn begins 3-4 years after planting. However, there are also their own characteristics. In view of the formation of new berries in places of last year's growth, fruiting is always moved to the very edge of the crown. Some of the branches that have been fruitless are exposed. That is why it is so important to provide all the conditions for annual growth. This approach will guarantee a rich harvest.
Sea buckthorn yield
Yields of sea buckthorn largely depend on the selected variety, but in general they can vary from 5 to 9 kg. The size of the berry will also change - from 0.45 g to 0.8 g.
The following are the most productive varieties:
- Trofimovskaya - According to experts, it has the highest taste. Each year, one tree of this variety brings about 7.5 kg of the crop, and the mass of berries can reach 0.6 g.
- Nugget - also taste qualities are highly quoted, and productivity can reach 6 kg from a bush. In this case, the weight of the berry is not more than 0.5 g.
- Lomonosov - It is considered the most fertile variety, which is able to bring up to 9-10 kg from one shrub. But the mass of berries is small - no more than 0.45 g.
Life expectancy and fruiting
Sea buckthorn does not have a high life expectancy - such a bush is able to live no more than 30 years. There are also long-livers who can grow for about 50 years, but such cases are quite rare and depend mainly on the soil of growth, as well as proper care. The crop begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year after planting, but the highest yield is achieved in the 7–8th year of life and then up to 12–15 years. In the future, the number of berries is regularly reduced every year until it stops completely.
The general condition of sea buckthorn depends on the performance of agrotechnical procedures. Such a plant is quite whimsical, and therefore will require care for healthy growth, development and high productivity. First of all, mandatory procedures include watering the soil, top-dressing and pruning shrubs.
Sea buckthorn has low drought tolerance, and therefore even short-term periods of drying out of the soil can be fatal for it. But it is impossible to suppose and waterlogging of soil. This is due to the low ability of air permeation of wet soil, which leads to oxygen starvation of the entire root system of the plant.
The frequency of watering depends on the age of sea buckthorn. For example, a recently planted seedling requires a lot of water - the soil must be constantly moistened until the first leaves bloom. In addition, about 3-4 buckets of water will be required for each m².
Adult bushes that have already entered the fruiting period should be watered about 4 times a year:
- before flowering;
- one month after the first watering;
- during fruiting;
- after harvest (in October), in the process of preparing the plant for wintering.
Important! An important step in the maintenance of sea buckthorn is loosening the soil. Given the characteristics of the rhizome, this procedure should be carried out after each irrigation to a depth of not more than 30 cm.
Fertilizing should begin from the third year of the plant's life. Mid-spring (April) recommended sprinkle ammonium nitrate in a ratio of 20 g / 1 m². Since the root system of sea buckthorn quickly grows, the soil should be fed not near the trunk of the bush itself, but in the near-stem circle and a little further.
In the autumn, dug up soil fertilize with phosphate fertilizers (based on 30 g per 1 m²), potassium salt (25 g per 1 m²), as well as wood ash (100 g per m²). Acidic soils will also require the addition of phosphorite flour in a ratio of 50 g per 1 m².
Pruning and rejuvenation
Given the peculiarities of the formation of sea buckthorn berries along the edges of the crown, from the third year of life, sea buckthorn should be trimmed. But there is a feature: the formation and rejuvenation of the bush is permissible to carry out no more than 1 time in 3 years. This will avoid depletion of the bushes.
Did you know? Thanks to the healing properties, sea buckthorn has been widely used to treat the effects of people who survived the Chernobyl disaster.
It is worth noting that in order to get a harvest, the gardener will need to work hard. Sea buckthorn will not grow and bear fruit in the garden without proper care. However, the results are worth it - healthy berries will delight you with an indescribable taste and aroma.